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奥风英语语法 初中版

全面系统,无一遗漏 简明扼要,通俗易懂 简明扼要,通俗易懂 简明扼要,通俗易懂 精讲精练,讲练结合

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    《奥风英语语法.初中版》由知名中学英语教研专家魏训刚老师主编。魏老师对中学英语有着多年研究,对中高考英语的脉搏有着精准的把握,曾与国内众多知名教辅品牌合作,主参编中学英语教辅数十部。魏老师主讲的《中/高考语法完全突破》(已由山东电子音像出版视出版)视频教程深受广大学子欢迎,在优酷上单视频点击量突破百万,创同类视频记录。因为很多师生在校使用视频不方便,纷纷提出希望魏老师出一套书版的语法。正是在广大师生的要求和支持下,这配语法书才得以呈现在大家面前。

本书特色:

1.全面系统,无一遗漏。
本书以前课标规定的5级(针对初中毕业生)要求为依据,并参考全国各省市近十年的高考真题,确保全面覆盖高中所涉及到的所有语法点。
2.简明扼要,通俗易懂。
本书秉承了魏老师语法讲座系列的一贯风格,语言简明扼要,通俗易懂,是真正能让学生一看就会的语法书。
3.紧扣中考,一针见血。
本书推出前,编者花了大量的时间研究了全国各地市近十年的中考真题,对每个考点和难点都做到了然于胸,从而使得本书在讲解上极具针对性,做到直击考点,一针见血,让学生所学即所考。学后做题,可收立杆见影之效。
4.视听结合,效率倍增。
本书配有MP3格式的魏老师语法讲座录音,可以存入MP3播放器,随身携带,随时学习。既使得学习方式多样化,避免了单一看书的枯燥,同时将视听结合起来,也大大提高了学习效率。
5. 精讲精练,讲练结合。
本书每个专题均配有精编练习,每套练习分为三部分:
Ⅰ.中考真题演练-接触各地真题,把握中考脉搏!
Ⅱ. 基础巩固练习-练习全面系统,切实打牢基础!
Ⅲ. 中考模拟强化练习-巩固强化提高,完全模拟中考
目录
第一讲:名词
一.名词的分类
二.名词的数
三.名词所有格
四.不可数名词的量化表达
五.名词的语法功能
名词专项练习
第二讲:冠词
一.不定冠词的用法
二.定冠词的用法
三.不用冠词(零冠词)的情况
四.冠词对意义的影响
冠词专项练习
第三讲:数词
一.数词的分类
二.基数词的构成
三.序数词的构成
四.数词的其他形式
数词专项练习
第四讲:代词
一.代词的分类
二.代词详解
1.人称代词
2. 物主代词
3. 反身代词
4. 相互代词
5. 指示代词
6.不定代词
7.疑问代词
代词专项练习
第五讲:形容词和副词
一.形容词
二.副词
形容词和副词专项练习
第六讲:介词
一.介词的语法意义
二.介词详解
1.表示时间的介词
2. 表示地点、方位的介词
3.其他介词
4.常见易混介词的辨析
介词专项练习
第七讲:连词
一.连词的分类
二.并列连词
三.从属连词
连词专项练习
第八讲:动词分类及其基本用法
一.动词的分类
二.各类动词的基本用法
1.实义动词/行为动词
2. 系动词
3.助动词
4.情态动词
动词分类及其基本用法专项练习
第九讲:动词的时态和语态
一.动词时态
1.一般现在时
2. 一般过去时
3.一般将来时
4. 过去将来时
5. 现在进行时
6. 过去进行时
7.现在完成时
8. 过去完成时
9. 现在完成进行时
二.动词的语态
1.被动语态的使用
2.被动语态的基本结构
3. 被动语态注意事项
4.常见主动表被动的用法
动词的时态和语态专项练习
第十讲:非谓语动词
一.不定式
二. 分词
三.动名词
非谓语动词专项练习
第十一讲:句子的种类
一.英语的句子成分
二.句子种类
1. 陈述句
2. 疑问句
3. 祈使句
4. 感叹句
句子的种类专项练习
第十二讲:简单句、并列句和复合句
一.简单句
二.并列句
三.复合句
1.基本概念
2. 宾语从句
宾语从句专项练习
3. 定语从句
定语从句专项练习
4. 状语从句
状语从句专项练习
第十三讲:主谓一致
主谓一致练习
第十四讲:强调句和倒装句
一. 强调句
二. 倒装句
强调句和倒装句专项练习
第十五讲:直接引语和间接引语
内容示例

第二讲:冠词

一.冠词

 

类别

形式

用法概述

不定冠词

a

表示泛指,意义同one

用于以辅音发音开头的单词或字母前

an

用于以元音发音开头的单词或字母前

定冠词

the

表示特指,其意义同this/that/these/those

注意:用a还是用an取决于单词的第一个发音,而不是字母。如: an hour, a university

1.不定冠词的用法

(1)表示数量“一”(=one)或“每一”(=every)。

          如:A thousand people were there.那儿有一千人。(=one

          Take the medicine three times a day.这种药每天服三次。

(本句中a表示“每一”,a day相当于every day。)

(2)表示初次提到的某个人或物。

如:A boy is waiting for you.有个男孩在等你。

(3)表示一类人或物

如:A horse is an animal.马是一种动物。

(4)用于某些固定词组或短语中。

如:a little(一点),a few(几个),a lot(许多;大量的),many a(很多)

in a minute(一会儿;立刻),have a cold(感冒),all of a sudden(突然)

2.定冠词的用法

(1)表示上文提到过的人或事物。

如:I saw a boy yesterday. The boy was very tall.我昨天看到一个男孩。那个男孩很高。

(2)特指双方都明白的人或物。

如:Open the door, please.请打开(那扇)门。

              Give me the book.给我那本书。

(3)指世上独一无二的事物前。

如:The sun is bigger than the earth.太阳比地球大。

(4)与单数可数名词连用,表示一类人或物。

如:The cat is a lovely animal.猫是一种可爱的动物。

(5)与复数可数名词连用,表示整个群体。

如:They are the teachers of this school. [他们是这所学校的(全体)教师。]

比较:They are teachers of this school. [他们是这所学校的(部分)教师。)

(6)用于形容词/副词最高级、序数词前,及形容词onlyverysame前。

如:I live on the second floor.我住在二楼。
              He is the same age as you.他和你年龄一样。

(7)用于乐器前。

如:He plays the piano very well.他的钢琴弹地很好。

(8)用于姓氏复数前,表示一家人或夫妇。用于某些形容词前,表示一类人。

如:The Smiths are watching TV.史密斯夫妇(或史密斯一家人)正在看电视。

              The old are taken good care of.老人(们)受到很好的照料。

(9)用于江、河、湖、海、群岛、山脉前。

如:the Yangtze River(长江), the Pacific Ocean(太平洋)

注意:独山的表达方式通常用Mount +名字,如:Mount Tai(泰山)

(10)用于by后表示计量单位。

如:The waiters are paid by the hour/day.这些服务员按小时/天计酬。

(11)代替物主代词,用于表示身体部位的名词前。

如:He caught the man by the arm.他抓住了那个人的胳膊。

               Tom hit the thief in the face.汤姆打中了小偷的脸。

(12)用于某些固定词组或短语中。

如:in the end(最后;终于),in the rain(在雨中),in the middle of(在中间)

3.不用冠词(零冠词)的情况

(1)在专有名词、物质名词和抽象名词前一般不用冠词。

如:Tom was born in China.汤姆生于中国。

              We can not live without air.没有空气我们就无法生存。

(2)名词前已有作定语的指示代词、物主代词、不定代词时不用冠词。

如:Pass me that book, please.请递给我本书。

              The letter is in her bag. 信在她的包里。

(3)复数名词指一类人或事物不用冠词。

如:Horses are animals.马是动物。

(4)星期、月份、季节和节日名称前不用冠词。

如:It’s Sunday today.今天星期天。

(5)三餐、球类、学科名词之前不用冠词。

如:When do you have lunch?你什么时间吃午饭?

              He often plays football.他经常踢足球。

(6)由介词by引导的交通工具名词前不用冠词。

如:We traveled by train.我们乘火车旅行。   

(7)在称呼语或表示头衔的名词前不加冠词。

如:Miss Li(李小姐;李老师), Professor Chen(陈教授)

(8)两个相同及相对的名词并用时不加冠词。

如:face to face(面对面),day and night(日日夜夜)

father and son(父子)side by side(肩并肩)

(9)某些固定词组或习惯用语中不用冠词。

如:at night(夜晚),go to school(上学),by bus(乘公交),on foot(步行),at home(在家),at work(在工作),in trouble(陷入麻烦),in surprise(惊奇地),at school(在上学),at noon(在正午),in time(及时),in English(用英语),on time(准时),for example(例如)

4.冠词对意义的影响

(1)有无the的不同:英语中有一些短语,用the不用the,其含义和用法大相径庭。

如:in hospital(生病住院);in the hospital(在医院里做其他事)

at table(在吃饭);at the table(在桌子旁)

in class(在上课);in the class(在教室里),

go to church(去教堂做礼拜);go to the church(去教堂做某他的事)

three of us(我们中的三个);the three of us(我们三个)

in front of(在前面);in the front of(在某物内部的前面)

(2)冠词不同,意义不同:有些短语,用不同的冠词,有不同的意义。

          如:a number of许多;the number of……的数目

              in a way在某种程度上;in the way挡路;碍事

冠词专项练习

.中考真题演练

1. Peter is________ honest boy and________ good friend of mine.

A. a; the.             B. the; an                 C. a; an                 D. an; a

2. ________ 15th International Film Festival will be held in Shanghai.

A.The                  B. An                      C. A                     D./

3. ________ old man in________ brown coat over there is Mr. Jackson

A. An, a               B. Anthe                 C. Thea                D. Thethe

4. —People can’t live without ________ water.  

—Yes, I think so.

A. a                   B. an                      C. the                   D.不填

5. —What do you want to be when you grow up?

—I want to be________ social worker. Many people are in great need of our help.

A. a                   B. an                      C. the                   D.不填

6. A new road was built between our village and the town. ________ road is wide and clean.

A.不填                 B. The                     C. A

7. May is the________ month of a year.

A. fifty               B. fifteen                C.fifth                   D. five

8. Lucy is ________ good girl. She often helps others.

A. a                   B. an                     C. the                    D. / 

9. — Who’s that lovely girl?

— You mean________ girl with long hair? That’s Kate

A. a                   B. an                     C. the                     D.不填

10. Look! There is ________ cat in the tree.

A. a                   B. an                     C. the                     D. /

11. — How was________ dinner at Mike’s house?

   — It was great. Mike’s mum is ________ wonderful cook.

A. a the               B. the; a                 C. the; the                D. a; an

12. After school we usually play________ basketball for half an hour on________ playground.

A. the; the            B.不填;不填               C.不填; the                D. the;不填

13. On April 12, 1961________ 27-year-oldYuri Gagarin(尤里·加加林)became the first human to go into________ space.

A. the;不填            B. the; the               C. a;不填                  D. a; the

14. There’s ________ apple on the table. ________ apple is for my little brother.

A. a; An               B. an; An                 C. the; An                 D. an; The

15. The scientists from ________ United States live in ________ Ninth Street.

A. the; the            B. /; the                 C. /; /                     D. the; /

16. —Do you know________ man in blue?

  — Yes, he’s a professor of ________ University.

A. the; a              B. a; an                  C. the; an                  D. /’ the

17. —Have you got ________ E-mail address?

—Oh yes, mine is wjb80@yahoo. com.

A. the                B. an                      C. a                        D. /

18. — What does Michael look like?

— He has black eyes and________ wide mouth.

A. a                  B. an                      C. the

19. There is ________ report in today’s newspaper. It’s about ________ sports meeting that will be held in Weihai.

A. a; the             B. an; the                  C. the; the              D. a; a

20. It's not ________ good idea to drive for four hours without ________ break.

A. a; a               B. a: the                   C. the; a                D. the; the 

21. — Did you get here by________ bike?

— No, I took ________ taxi.

A. a; a              B.不填;a                    C. the; the              D. a; the

22. Our Chinese teacher told us ________ interesting story and ________ story was about Thomas Edison.

A. an; a             B. the; the                    C. a; the               D. an; the

23. This is ________ empty bottle. Could you give me ________ full one?

A. a, a              B. an, a                       C. the, the             D.∕, a

24. My mother is ________ English teacher in No. 2 Middle School.

A. a                 B. the                         C. an                   D.

25. I like music, but I don’t like ________ music of this film.
A. a                 B. an                          C. the                  D.不填

26. Fred plays ________ piano after ________ supper every day.

A. the; the          B. /; the                      C. the; /

27. — What are you going to be when you grow up, Sam?

—________ teacher like you.

A. A                B. An                           C. The                D. /

28. On March 11, 2011, ________ earthquake hit Japan.

A. an               B. a                            C. /                  D. the

29. — Have you seen ________ pen? I left one here this morning.

— Is it ___________ black one? I think I saw it somewhere.

A. the; the         B. a; a                        C. the; a              D. a; the

 

.基础巩固练习

.选择填空

1. —Are you ________ Chinese or Japanese?

—Chinese. But I was born in Japan.

A. an               B. /                   C. the                     D. one

2. Look at ________ skirt, I bought it for Mum on Mother’s Day. Isn’t it nice?
 A. a                B. an                  C. the                     D.不填

3. Bob is ________eleven-year-old boy, but he knows a lot about Chinese history.

A. an               B. a                   C. the                      D. /     
4. In the United States, Father’s Day falls on _______ third Sunday in _______ June.
 A. the,不填        B. the, a              C.不填, the                 D. a,不填
5. —Where’s ________key to my bike, Jim? 
  —It’s in your bag.
 A. a                B. an                  C. the                      D./
6. What ________exciting football match! Our team beat Tom’s team at last.
 A. a                B. an                  C. the                      D. /
7. Pass me ________dictionary next to the radio, and I also need ________ pen to write something.  
 A. a, a             B. the, the            C. the, a                   D. a, the
8. —How is your father?

—He has been in ________hospital for a week.

—Sorry to hear that. Is he in ________hospital where he stayed last year?

A. the; the         B. /; the              C. the; /                    D. /; /

9. There is  ________ “h”, ________ “o”, ________ “u” and  ________ “r” in the word “hour”.

A. an; an; a; an      B. a; an; a; an          C. an; an; a; a             D. a; a; an; an

10. —This is  ________ film I’ve told you about several times.

—It’s great. I’ve never seen  ________ more moving one.
A. a, a               B. the, the              C. the, a                   D. a, the

11. There is  ________ report in today’s newspaper. It’s about the International Film Festival, Shanghai.
A. a                 B. an                   C. the                        D. /

12. My brother likes playing  ________ basketball and I am good at playing  ________piano.

A.不填, the         B. the,不填             C. an, the                     D. the, a

13. —What about hiring a bike?

—It will cost you2 ________hour or5 ________ day.

A. a; the           B. an; an                C. the; a                     D. an; a

14. People like to see films on ________TV instead of going to ________cinema.

A. the, the         B.不填, the               C. the,不填                  D.不填,不填

15. Let’s look at the bag. Can you see ________ “s” on the corner of ________bag?

A. a, a               B. a, the                C. an, a               D. an, the

二.用适当的冠词填空,不需用冠词的画“/”

1. What _______ fine weather we have these days!

2. —Tina looks especially pretty tonight.

—Yes, she always looks her _______ best in _______ dress like that.

3. —Do you know _______ girl in white?

—Yes, she’s _______ old friend of mine.

4. —Put _______ waste bag in the dustbin.

—It’s not _______ waste bag. It’s my shopping bag.

5. _______ students in our school all study very hard.

6. Mr. Smith always gives me _______ hand when I am in trouble.

7. There’s _______ English boy playing ________ chess under the tree. ________ boy lives near here.

8. _______ earth we live on is bigger than _______ moon.

9. _______ Greens are on _______ visit to a beautiful city in China.

10. Haikou, _______ capital of Hainan Province, is _______ pretty city.

11. After _______ supper, he stayed at _______ home and played ______ violin.

12. Taiwan is _______ island to _______ south of East China Sea. It’s _______ largest in China.

13. Please pay your attention to your spelling. You’ve dropped _______ “s” in the word “Wednesday”.

morn-ing every day.

14. In order to make it clear, I must go up to _______ second floor and ask him _______ second time.

15. We have three meals        day. We have        breakfast at 6:30 in   _____   

.用适当的冠词填空,如不用冠词请打“/”

One night a man came to a well and look into it. He saw  1 moon in the water. “The moon has fallen down  2 well,” he said to himself. “I must get it up.” He ran  3    home to get   4  rope. Then he threw one end of the rope into the water and held   5   other in his hand. The rope was round   6  big stone in the well. He pulled and pulled, but   7 stone didn’t move. When he pulled very hard,   8  rope was broken. The man fell to  9 ground and the rope went up into the air. While he was looking up, he was very happy, “Good,” he said, “I have put the moon back into  10 sky.”

1. _______ 2. ________ 3. _______ 4. ________ 5. _______

6. _______ 7. ________ 8. _______ 9. ________ 10. _______

 

.中考模拟强化练习

1. Li Na is ___________ excellent tennis player.
 A. a                    B. an                          C. the                    D. /

2. Liu Changchun is ___________first Chinese to join the Olympics.

A. a                 B. an                         C. the                        D. /

3. It is said ___________apple ___________day keeps the doctor away.
 A. an, the                       B. a, a                     C. an, a                   D. a, the
4. -Have you seen ___________pen? I left it here this morning.
 -Is it ___________black one? I think I saw it somewhere.
 A. a, the                B. the, the                C. the, a                 D. a, a
5. Chinese is ___________useful language.
 A. an                          B. much                  C. a 
6. —What’s the matter with you ?
  —I caught ___________ bad cold and had to stay in ___________bed.
 A. a, /                         B. a, the                 C. a, a                    D. the, the
7. There is ___________ “h” in the word “hour”.

A. a                     B. the                    C. an                     D.不填

8. —Do you know ___________lady in blue?
  —Yes. She is a teacher of a university.
  A. the                        B. a                     C. an                     D. /
9. —Where’s ___________nearest supermarket?
  —It’s over there, just around the corner.
 A. a                   B. an                     C. the                    D. /
10. Millie has ___________e-dog and it’s name is Hobo.
 A. a                  B. an                    C. the                   D. /

11. Peter likes playing ___________football very much, but he doesn’t like ___________football I bought for him on his birthday.

A. the, the                   B. /, /                   C. the, /                       D. /, the

12.You have dropped___________“s” in the word “necessary.”

—Oh, ___________letter “s” is doubled. —

A. a; a                    B. a; the                         C. an; the                        D. the; the

13. Before I met ___________young person, I had never seen ___________honest person like him.

A. the; an                B. a; the                      C. a; a               D. the; the

14. Our teacher told us that ___________moon moves around ___________earth, and ___________earth circles  ___________sun.

A. a; a; a; a           B. an; an; an; an       C. the; the; the; the          D. /; /; /; /

15. —Do you have ___________pen?

—Yes. I have one.

A. a                 B. an                 C. the                        D. /

16. He gave my sister ___________useful book yesterday.

A. an                B. a                   C. /

17. I got the news on ___________ radio.

A. /                 B. a                   C. an                 D. the

18. Jackie Chan is ___________great actor. I really like his movies.

A. a                 B. an                         C. the                        D. /

19. ___________ earth we live on is bigger than ___________moon.
 A. The, a               B. The, the                C. An, a                  D. An, the 
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